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Journal of Environmental Nanotechnology

(A Quarterly Peer-reviewed and Refereed International Journal)
ISSN(Print):2279-07 48; ISSN(Online):2319-5541

Eco-Sustainable Approach in Rural Housing: Handling Village Wastewater through Natural Treatment Systems


This study assess the long-term sustainability for operation and maintenance (O&M) of constructed wetland based sewage treatment system. The study focused on the integrated assessment of an engineered constructed wetland followed by fish pond of 0.5 million liters per day capacity in the Pipar Mazra Village, District Ludhiana, the State of Punjab, northern India. Major areas during the assessment included health, environmental, societal and institutional views aspects as well as the quality of treated effluent subjected for reuse. The treatment facility met the Indian regulatory standards (downstream reuse and discharge into the legally permitted water bodies) in terms of physical-chemical parameters. The total coliform and faecal coliform removal was up to 2 - 3 log units, nevertheless it was not capable to come across the bacterial count requirement (<1000 per 100 mL to minimise human health risk in aquaculture practices). The wastewater treatment facility was able to generate enough profits which utilised for routine O&M. Annual revenue collected by the Gram Panchayat from the lease of the facility as well as selling of treated wastewater was $1,029 and $294 - $441, respectively. The additional benefit from the facility to the farmers included the saving of fertilizers and cheaper source of treated wastewater available for irrigation. Recycling of treated sewages for irrigation is also returned nutrients to the surrounding farms around the facility. The system has saved significant quantities of chemical fertilizer (0.766 - 1.132 Ton of nitrogen, 0.383 - 0.456 Ton of phosphorous and 2.372 - 3.650 Ton of potassium per year) and the overall benefit for farmers during cultivation of one acre of crop was calculated to be approximately $74 per year.

Article Type: Research Article

Corresponding Author: V. C. Goyal 3  

Email: vcgoyal@yahhoo.com

This article has not yet been cited.

Dinesh Kumar 1,  Omkar Singh 2,  V. C. Goyal 3*.  

1, 2, 3. National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India.

J. Environ. Nanotechnol., Volume 6, No. 2 pp. 07-13
ISSN: 2279-0748 eISSN: 2319-5541
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