Welcome to JENT its Thursday 18th of January 2018

Journal of Environmental Nanotechnology

(A Quarterly Peer-reviewed and Refereed International Journal)
ISSN(Print):2279-07 48; ISSN(Online):2319-5541
CODEN:JENOE2

Gas Sensors- A Review

Abstract

Chemical sensors for specific species with varying sensitivity levels are commercially available. Common chemical sensors defer in terms of the sensing material and the nature of property change such as electrical conductivity, optical characteristics and temperature. Some of the current sensor technologies include high temperature oxide thin- film sensors, polymer based sensors, catalytic based sensors and surface acoustic wave sensors are described. In this, the sensor array consists of Carbon Nano Tube(CNT) as sensing material and an interdigitated electrode as a transducer is described. The gas sensors fabricated by using conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole as the active layers have been reviewed. The macroscopic coaxial carbon cylinders consisting of aligned CNT stacks have been used in CNT- polymer composite. The advantages and disadvantages of each sensor technology are also highlighted. All these technologies have been used for the development of highly sensitive and responsive gas sensors for the detection of flammable and hazardous gases. However, for improved sensitivity and selectivity for these sensors, future trends and outlook for researchers are suggested in this review.

Article Type: Review Article

Corresponding Author: S. Karthikeyan 1  

Email: environkarthi@gmail.com

This article has not yet been cited.

S. Karthikeyan 1*,  Haresh M. Pandya 2,  M. U. Sharma 3,  K. Gopal 4.  

1. Department of Chemistry, Chikkanna Government Arts College, Tiruppur, Tamilnadu, India.

2. Department of Physics, Chikkanna Government Arts College, Tiruppur, Tamilnadu, India.

3. Defence Scientist (DRDO), Solid State Physics Laboratory, New Delhi, India.

4. Department of Chemistry, Erode Arts and Science College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.

J. Environ. Nanotechnol. Volume 4, No. 4, pp. 01-14
ISSN: 2279-0748 eISSN: 2319-5541
ENT153163.pdf
Download Citation

Reference

Acquaroli, L. N., Urteaga, R. and Koropecki, R. R., Innovative design for optical porous silicon gas sensor, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 149(1), 189-193(2010).             

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2010.05.065

Adam, H., Stanislaw, G. and Folke, I., Chemical sensors definitions and classification, Pure Appl. Chem., 63, 1274-1250(1991).             

doi:10.1351/pac199163091247.

Adjizian, J. J., Leghrib, R., Koos, A. A., Suarez-Martinez, I., Crossley, A., Wagner, P., Grobert, N., Liobet, E. and Ewels, C. P., Boron and Nirogen- doped MWCNTs for gas detection, Carbon, 66, 662-7673(2014).             

doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.09.064

Anuradha, S. and Rajanna, K., Development of Thermoelectric gas sensors for volatile organic Compounds, in Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Conference on Sensors, Daegu, 22-25, 716-718(2006).

Awasthi, K., Awasthi, S., Srivastava, A., Kamalakaran, R., Talapatra, S., Ajayan, P. M. and Srivastava, O. N., Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube polyethylene oxide composites, Nanotechnol., 17(21), 5417-5422 (2006).                                    

doi:10.1088/0957-4484/17/21/022

Awasthi, K., Singh, A. K. and Srivastava, O. N., Formation of Carbon Nanotubes without Iron Inclusion and Their Alignment through Ferrocene and Ferrocene–Ethylene Pyrolysis,  J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 3(6), 540-544(2003).

doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2003.237

Bearzotti, A., Foliated, V., Polzonetti, G., Fuci, G., Furlani, A. and Russo, M.V., Investigations on the response to humidity of an interdigitated electrode structure coated with iodine doped polyphenylacetylene, Mater. Sci. Eng. B, 40(1), 1-4(1996).  

doi:10.1016/0921-5107(96)01589-9

Brédas, J. L., Scott, J. C., Yakushi, K. and Street, G. B., Polarons and bipolarons in polypyrrole: Evolution of the band structure and optical spectrum upon doing, Phys. Rev., 30(B), 1023(1984).    

doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.30.1023

Caravan, E., Vies, C., Dolby, R., Harsanyi, G. and Berkesi, O., Irregular response of the polypyrrole films to H2S, Electro analysis, 12, 1195-1200(2000).

doi.org/10.1002/1521-109(200010)12:15<1195::AID-ELAN1195>3.0.CO;2-1

Chang, S. M., Muramatsu, H., Nakamura, C. and Miyake, J., The principle and applications of piezoelectric crystal sensors, Mater. Sci. Eng. C-Biomimetic Supramol. Syst., 12, 111-123(2000).

doi:10.1016/S0928-4931(00)00167-3

Chao, Y., Yao, S., Buttner, W. J. and Stetter, J. R., Amperometric sensor for selective and stable Hydrogen measurement, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 106(2), 784-790(2005).

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2004.09.042

Chen, D., Liu, W., Zhang, Y., Liu, J., Kan, R., Wang, M., Chen, J. and Cui, Y.,  H2S detection by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Information Acquisition, Shandong, 20-23, 754-758(2006).

Currie, J. F., Essalik, A. and Marusic, J. C., Micromachined thin film solid state electrochemical CO2, NO2 and SO2 gas sensors, Sens.  Actuat. B: Chem., 59(2), 235-241(1999).

doi:10.1016/S0925-4005(99)00227-0

De Graaf, G. and Wolffenbuttel, R., Surface-micromachined Thermal conductivity detectors for Gas sensing, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), Graz, 13-16, 1861-1864(2012).

Dobay, R., Harsanyi, G. and Visy, C., Conducting polymer based electrochemical sensors on thick film substrate, Electro anal., 11, 804-808(1999).

doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-109(199907)11:10/11<804::AID-ELAN804>3.0.CO;2-B

Dubbe, A., Fundamentals of solid state ionic micro gas sensors, Sens. Actuat. B, 88, 138-148(2003).

doi.org/10.1016/S0925-4005(02)00317-9

Dutta, A., Nishiguchi, H., Takita, Y. and Ishihara, T., Amperometric hydrocarbon sensor using La(Sr) Ga(Fe) O3 solid electrolyte for monitoring in Exhaust gas, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 108(1-2), 368-373(2005).                     

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2004.10.042

Eui Bok, Lee, Hwang, I. S.,  Cha, J. H.,  Lee, H. J., Lee, W. B., Pak, J. J., Lee, J. H.  and Ju, B. K.,  Micromachined catalytic combustible hydrogen gas Sensor, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 153(2), 392-397(2011).                

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2010.11.004

Firth, J. G., Jones, A. and Jones, T., The principles    of the detection of flammable atmospheres by catalytic devices, Combust. Flame, 20, 303-311(1973).  doi:10.1016/0010-2180(73)90021-7

Gan, T. and Hu, S., Electrochemical sensors based on Graphene materials, Microchim. Acta, 175(1-2), 1-19(2011).                                          

doi:10.1007/s00604-011-0639-7

Garcia Romeo, D., Martinez, A.  and Azcona, C., NDIR-based CO2 Monitor System for Wireless Sensor Networks, IEEE Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems LASCAS, Playa Del Carmen, 29, 1-4(2012).             

doi:10.1109/LASCAS.2012.6180326

Ho, K. and Hung, W., An Amperometric NO2 gas Sensor based on Pt/Na® on 1 Electrode, Sensor. Actuat. B: Chem. 79(2), 11-16(2001). 

doi:10.1016/S0925-4005(01)00782-1

Hordvik, A., Berg, A. and Thingbo, D., A fibre optic gas detection system, Proc. 9th Int. Conf. on opt. Comms. Ecoc., 83, 317(1983).

Hosaya, A., Tamura, S. and Imanaka, N., A catalytic combustion type CO gas sensor incorporating aluminium nitride as an intermediate heat transfer layer for accelerated response time,  J. Sensors Sensor syst., 3, 141-144(2014).  

doi:10.5194/jsss-3-141-2014

Huang, J. and Wan, Q., Gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide one-dimensional nanostructures, Sens., 9(12), 9903-9924(2009).   

doi:10.3390/s91209903

Hubert, T., Boon-Brett, L., Black, G. and Banach, U., Hydrogen sensors – A review, Sensor. Actuat. B: Chem., 157(2), 329-352(2011).

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2011.04.070

Inaba, H., Kobayasi, T.,  Hirama, M. and Hamza, M.,  Optical-fiber network system for Air-pollution monitoring over a wide area by optical absorption method, Electron. Lett., 15(23), 749-751(1979).

doi:10.1049/el:19790536

Janata, J. and Josowicz, M., Conducting polymers in electronic chemical sensors, Nat. Mater., 2, 19-24(2003).                                        

doi.org/10.1038/nmat768

Jia, Z., Wang, Z., Xu, C., Liang, J., Wei, B., Wu, D. and Zhu, S., Study on poly(methylmethacrylate): Carbon nanotube composites, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 271, 395-400(1999).                                        

doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(99)00263-4

Jin, G., Too, C. O., Norrish, J. and Wallace, G. G., Directed electrochemical deposition of conducting polymer filament on screen-printed array, Synth. Met. 135, 29-30(2003).                 

doi.org/10.1016/S0379-6779(02)00686-0

Jin, J. X., peramoda, K. P., Goh, S. H. and Xu, G. Q., Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-assisted melt-blending of multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(methyl methacrylate) composites, Mater. Res. Bull., 37, 271-278(2002).                                         

doi.org/10.1016/S0025-5408(01)00775-9

Jones, E., The Pellistor catalytic gas detection, in: P. Moseley, B. Tofield (Eds.), Solid State Gas Sensors, Adam Hilger, Bristol, Chapter 2, 17-31(1987).

Kasai, N., Tsuchiya, C., Fukuda, T., Sekine, K., Sano, T. and Takehana, T., Propane gas leak detection by infrared absorption using carbon infrared emitter and infrared camera, NDT & E International, 44(1), 57-60(2011).                 

doi:10.1016/j.ndteint.2010.09.006

Khodadadi, A., Mohajerzadeh, S. S.,  Mortazavi, Y. and Miri, A. M.,  Cerium oxide / SnO2-based Semiconductor gas sensors with improved sensitivity to CO, Sensor. Actuat. B: Chem., 80(3), 267-271(2001).                                         

doi:10.1016/S0925-4005(01)00915-7

Kim, B., Lu, Y., Hannon, A., Meyyapan, M. and Li, J., Low temperature Pd/SnO2 sensor for CO detection, Sens. Actuat. B, 177, 770-775(2013).

doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.11.020

King, W. H., Piezoelectric sorption detector, Anal. Chem., 36, 1735-1739(1964).     

doi.org/10.1021/ac60215a012

Kobayashi, T., Hirana, M. and Inaba, H., Remote monitoring of NO2 molecules by Differential absorption using optical fibre link,  Appl. Opt.,  20(5), 3279(1981).

doi:10.1364/AO.20.003279

Kymakis, E., Alexandou, I. and Amaratunga, G. A. J., Single-walled carbon nanotube-polymer composites: electrical, optical and structural investigation, synth. Metal, 127, 59-62(2002).                        

doi:10.1016/S0379-6779(01)00592-6

La, D. D., Kim, C. K., Jun, T. S., Jung, Y., Seong, G. H.,  Choo, J. and Kim, Y. S.,  Pt nanoparticle-supported Multiwall carbon nanotube electrodes for Amperometric hydrogen detection, Sensor. Actuat. B: Chem., 155(1), 191-198(2011).

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2010.11.045

Lavrik, N. V., DeRossi, D., Kazantseva, Z. I., Nabok, A. V., Nesterenko, B. A., Piletsky, S. A., Kalchenko, V. I., Shivaniuk, A. N. and Markovskiy, L.N., Composite polyaniline/calixarene Langmuir- Blodgett films for gas sensing, Nanotechnol., 7, 315-319(1996).                                  

doi:10.1088/0957-4484/7/4/002

Lee, C.,  Akbar, S. A. and Park, C. O.,  Potentiometric CO2 gas sensor with lithium phosphorous oxynitride Electrolyte, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 80(3), 234-242(2001).                             

doi:10.1016/S0925-4005(01)00902-9

Li, T. and Lie, Xu., A high heating efficiency two-beam microplate for catalytic gas sensors, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electronic and Mechanical Systems MEMS, Kyoto, Japan, 65-68(2012).

Lim, C., Wang, W., Yang, S. and Lee, K., Development of SAW-based multi-gas sensor for simultaneous detection of CO2 and NO2, Sens. Actuat B: Chem., 154(1), 9-16(2011).                  

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2010.02.057

Liu, H. Q., Kameoka, J., Czaplewski, D. A. and Craighead, H. G., Polymeric nanowire chemical sensor, Nano Lett., 4, 671-675(2004).             

doi:10.1021/nl049826f

Lu, X., Wu, S., Wang, L. and Su, Z., Solid-state Amperometric hydrogen sensor based on polymer Electrolyte membrane fuel cell, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 107(2), 812-817(2005).     doi:10.1016/j.snb.2004.12.022

Mabeck, J. T. and Malliaras, G. G., Chemical and biological sensors based on organic thin-film transistors, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 384, 343-353(2006).                                          doi:10.1007/s00216-005-3390-2

Manap, H., Muda, R., O’Keeffe, S. and Lewis, E.,  Ammonia sensing and a cross sensitivity evaluation With atmosphere gases using optical fiber sensor, Procedia Chemistry, 1(1), 959-962(2009).       

doi:10.1016/j.proche.2009.07.239

Massie, C., Stewart, G., McGregor, G.  and Gilchrist, J. R.,  Design of a portable optical sensor for Methane gas detection, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 113(2), 830-836(2006).

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2005.03.105

Meyyappan, M. and Sunkara, M. K., Inorganic nanowires: Applications, properties and characterization, CRS press, Boca Raton, FL. See chapter 14, (2010)

Milella, E. and Penza, M., SAW gas detection using Langmuir-Blodgett polypyrrole films, Thin Solid Films, 329, 694-697(1998).              

doi:10.1016/S0040-6090(98)00743-3

Mishra, P. R., Awasthi, K. and Srivastava, O. N., Formation and microstructural characterization of coaxial carbon cylinders consisting of aligned carbon nanotube stacks, Nanosci.  Nanotechnol., 7(6), 1815-1819(2007).                             

doi:10.1166/jnn.2007.722

Mishra, V. N. and Agarwal, R. P., Sensitivity, response and recovery time of SnO2 based think- film sensor array for H2, CO2, CH4 and LPG, Sens. Actuat. B., 29, 861-874(1998).                                    

doi:10.1016/S0026-2692(98)00019-6

Nylabder, C., Armrests, M. and Lundstrom, I., An ammonia detector based on a conducting polymer, In Proceedings of the International Meeting on Chemical Sensors, Fukuoka, Japan, 203-207(1983).

Nylabder, C., Chemical and biological sensors, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., 18, 736-750(1985).                              

doi:10.1088/0022-3735/18/9/003

Ogura, K., Saline, T., Nakayama, M. and Shiigi, H., The humidity dependence of the electrical conductivity of a soluble polyaniline-poly (vinyl alcohol) composite film, J. Mater. Chem., 7, 2363-2366(1997).           

doi:10.1039/a705463g

Okajima, H.,  Kakuma, S., Uchida, K., Wakimoto, Y. and Noda, K., Measurement of methane gas concentration Using infrared LED, in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference SICE-ICASE, Busan, 18-21, 1656-1659(2006).

Okazaki, S.,  Nakagawa, H., Asakura, S.,  Tomiuchi, Y., Tsuji, N., Murayama, H. and Washiya, M., Sensing Characteristics of an optical fiber sensor for hydrogen leak, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 93(1-3), 142-147(2003).                                        

doi:10.1016/S0925-4005(03)00211-9

Penza, M., Milella, E. and Anisimkin, V. I., Gas sensing properties of Langmuir-Blodgett polypyrrole Film investigated by surface acoustic waves, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 45, 1125-1132(1998).                                doi:10.1109/58.726434

Penza, M., Milella, E., Alba, M. B., Quirini, A. and Vasanelli, L., Selective NH3 gas sensor based on Langmuir-Blodgett polypyrrole film, Sens. Actuat. B, 40, 205-209(1997).                        

doi:10.1016/S0925-4005(97)80263-8

Penza, M., Rossi, R., Alusi, M. and Serra, E., Metal- modified and vertically aligned CNT sensors Array for land-film gas monitoring application, Nanotechnol., 21, 105501(2010).        

doi:10.1088/0957- 4484/21/10/105501

Phawachalotorn, C., Sanguanruang, O. and Ishihara, T., Highly selective Amperometric sensors For carbon monoxide detection in exhaust gas, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 161(1), 635-640(2012).

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2011.10.081

Radhakrishnan, R., Virkar, A. V., Singhal, S. C.,  Dunham, G. C. and Marina, O. A.,  Design, fabrication and Characterization of a miniaturized series-connected Potentiometric oxygen sensor, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 105(2),312-321(2005).

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2004.06.014

Santhanam, K. S. V., Sangoi, R. and Fuller, L., A chemical sensor for chloromethanes using a nanocomposite of MWCNT with poly (3-methylthiophene), Sens. Actuat. B, 106, 766-771(2005).                      

doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2004.09.034

Sathiyamoorthi, R., Chandrasekaran, R., Mathanmohan, T., Muralidharan, B.  and Vasudevan, T., Study of electrochemical based gas Sensors for fluorine and chlorine, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 99(2), 336-339(2004).

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2003.11.031

Sauerbrey, G., Verwendung von Schwingquarzen zur Wägung dünner Schichten und zur Mikrowägung, Z. Phys., 155, 206-222(1959).       

doi.org/10.1007/BF01337937

Shin, W., Matsumiya, M., Izu, N. and Murayama, N., Hydrogen-selective thermoelectric gas sensor, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 93(1-3), 304-308(2003).

doi: 10.1016/S0925-4005(03)00225-9

Shin, W., Matsumiya, M., Qiu, F., Izu, N. and Murayama, N., Thermoelectric gas sensor for detection of high hydrogen concentration, Sensor.  Actuat. B: Chem., 97(2-3), 344-347(2004).

doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2003.08.029

Simon, I. and Arndt, M., Thermal and gas-sensing Properties of a micromachined thermal conductivity Sensor for the detection of hydrogen in automotive Applications, Sens. Actuat. A: Phys., 97-98, 104-108(2002).                             

doi: 10.1016/S0924-4247(01)00825-1

Srivatava, A., srivastava, O. N., Talapatra, S., Vjtai and Rand Ajayan, P. M., Carbon Nanofibre, Nature Mater., 3, 610-614(2004).                 

doi:10.1038/nmat1192

Stueflotten, S., Christensen, T., Iversen, S., Hellvik, J. O., Almas, K. and Wien, T., An infrared fibre optic gas detection system, Proc. Ofs-94 int. conf., 87(1986).

Tardy, P., Coulon, J. R., Lucat, C. and Menil, F., Dynamic thermal conductivity sensor for gas Detection, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 98(1), 63-68(2004).

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2003.09.019

Timers, B., Olthuis, W. and van den Berg, A., Ammonia sensors and their applications - A review, Sens. Actuat. B, 107, 666-677(2005).

doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2004.11.054

Wanna, Y., Srisukhumbowornchai, N., tauntranont, A., Wisitsoraat, N., Thavararungkul, P. and Singjai, P., The effect of CNT dispersion on CO gas sensing characteristics of polyaniline gas sensor, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 6, 3893- 3896(2006).  doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2006.675

Xu, L., Li, T., Gao, X. and Wang, Y., Behavior of a Catalytic Combustion Methane Gas Sensor Working On Pulse Mode, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Sensors, Kona, HI, USA, 1-4, 391-394(2010).

Yan, Y., Miura, N. and Yamazoe, N.,  Potentiometric Sensor using stabilized zirconia for chlorine gas, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 24(1), 287-290(1995).

doi:10.1016/0925-4005(95)85062-7

Yang, J. C.  and Dutta, P. K.,  High temperature Potentiometric NO2 sensor with asymmetric sensing And reference Pt electrodes, Sens. Actuat. B: Chem., 143(2), 459-463(2010). 

doi:10.1016/j.snb.2009.09.023

Yoon, S.,  Lee, C. and Kim, Y., A thermoelectric gas Sensor based on an embedded tin oxide catalyst for Detecting hydrogen and NOx Gases, in Proceedings of The IEEE 22nd International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS '09), Sorrento, 272-275(2009).

Zakrzewska, K., Mixed oxides as gas sensors, Thin Solid Films, 391, 229-238(2001).              

doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(01)00987-7

Zhang, G., Li, Y. and Li, Q., A miniaturized carbon Dioxide gas sensor based on infrared absorption, Opt. Lasers Eng., 48(12), 1206-1212(2010). 

     doi:10.1016/j.optlaseng.2010.06.012

>>