Welcome to JENT its Thursday 18th of January 2018

Journal of Environmental Nanotechnology

(A Quarterly Peer-reviewed and Refereed International Journal)
ISSN(Print):2279-07 48; ISSN(Online):2319-5541

Performance of Carbon Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Inclusion of Modified Low Cost Carbon Nanotubes


Power production with zero green house gas emission is economically and environmentally desirable. Direct photovoltaic conversion of sunlight into electricity is therefore a highly attractive to unsustainable energy sources such as fossil fuels. The development of dye-sensitized solar cells, which have derived inspiration from photosynthesis, has opened up exciting new possibilities and paradigms for producing solar photovoltaic possibly at lower cost. The DSSCs can be considered to be electrochemical devices consisting of a photoanode, counter electrode, electrolyte & dye.

Article Type: Research Article

Corresponding Author: S. Karthikeyan 5  

Email: skmush@rediffmail.com

This article has not yet been cited.

V. S. Angulakshmi  1,  P. S. Syed Shabudeen  2,  R. Murugesan 3,   N. Pasupathy  4,  S. Karthikeyan 5*.  

1. Department of Chemistry, Kathir college of Engineering, Coimbatore, TN, India.

2. Department of Chemistry, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore, TN, India.

3, 4. Department of Electronics, Erode Arts & Science College, TN, India.

5. Department of Chemistry, Chikkanna Government Arts College, Tirupur, TN, India.

J. Environ. Nanotechnol., Volume 4, No. 2. pp 47-59
ISSN: 2279-0748 eISSN: 2319-5541
ENT 152148.pdf
Download Citation


Aliaga, A. F., Weitz, R. T., Adarsh S. Sagar, Lee, E. J. H., Konuma, M., Burghard, M. and Kern, K., Strong p-type doping of individual carbon nanotubes by prussian blue functionalization, Small, 4 (10), 1671-1675(2008).


Anandan, S., Recent improvements and arising challenges in dye-sensitized solar cells, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 9 (9), 843-846(2007).


Anderson, S., Constable, E. C., Dareedwards, M. P., Good-enough, J. B., Hamnett, A., Seddon, K. R. and Wright, R. D., Chemical modification of titanium (IV) oxide electrode to give stable dye sensitization without a super sensitizer, Nature 280, 571-573(1979).

Andres, J. A. and Blau, W. J., Enhanced device performance using different carbon nanotube types in polymer photovoltaic devices, Carbon, 46 (15), 2067-2075(2008).

Battumur, T., Mujawar, S. H., Truong, Q. T., Ambade, S. B., Lee, D. S., Lee, W., Han, S-H. and Lee, S-H., Graphene/carbon nanotubes composites as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, Curr. Appl. Phys., 12, 49-53(2012).

Bower, C., Kleinhammes, A., Wu, Y. and Zhou, O., Intercalation and partial exfolitation of single walled carbon nanotubes by nitric acid, Chem. Phys. Lett., 288(2), 481-486(1998).       


Cai, F. J., Chen, T. and Peng, H. S., All carbon nanotube fiber electrode-based dye-sensitized photovoltaic wire, J. Mater. Chem. 22(30), 14856-14860(2012). 


Calogero, G., Marco, D. I., Caramori, G., Cazzanti, S., Argazzi, S. and Bignozzi, C. A., Natural dye sensitizers for photo-electrochemical cells,  Energy Environ. Sci, 2 (11), 1162-1172 (2008).


Campbell, W. M., Kenneth, W., Wagner, J. P., Wagner, K., Walsh, R. J., Gordon, K. C., Schmidt-Mende, L., Nazeeruddin, M. K., Wang, Q., Gratzel, M and David, L., Highly efficient porphyrin sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells, J. Phys. Chem. C, 111 (32), 11760-11762(2007).


Chang, H., Hsieh, T. J., Chen, T. L., Huang, K. D., Jwo, C. S., and Chien, S. H., Dye-sensitized solar cells made with TiO2 coated multiwall carbon nanotube and natural dyes extracted from Ipomoea, Materials Transactions, 50 (12), 2879-2884(2009).


Cheng Li, Yuhongchen, Yubingwang, Zafar Iqbal, Manish Chhowalla and Somenathmitra, A fullerenes –single wall carbon nanotube complex for polymer bulk hetero junction photovoltaic cells, J. Mater. Chem, 17 (23), 2406-2411(2007).


Cherepy, N. J., Smestad, G. P., Gratzel, M. and Zhang, J. Z., Ultrafast electron injection: implications for a photo-electrochemical cell utilizing an anthocyanin dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline electrode, J. Phys. Chem., 101 (45), 9342-9351(1997).


Dong, P., Cary L. Pint, Hainey, M., Mirri, F., Zhan, Y., Zhang, J., Pasquali, M., Robert H. Hauge, Verduzco, R., Jiang, M., Lin, H. and Lou, J., Vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes as low-cost and high electrocatalytic counter electrode for dye-senitized solar cells, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3(8), 3157-3161(2011).


Fan, B., Mei, X., Sun, K., and Quyang, J., Conducting polymer/carbon nanotube composite as counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells, Appl. Phys. Lett., 93(14), 143103(2008).


Fan, X., Chu, Z. Z., Chen, L., Zhang, C., Wang, F. Z., tang, Y. W., Sun, J. L. and Zou, D. C., Fibrous flexible solid-type dye-sensitized solar cells without transparent conducting oxide, Appl. Phys. Lett., 92 (11), 113-510(2008).


Frackowiak, E. and  Beguin, F., Carbon materials for the electrochemical storage of energy in capacitors, Carbon, 39(6), 937-950(2001).

Guo, W. X., Xu, C., Wang, X., Wang, S. H., Pan, C. F., Lin, C. J. and Wang, Z. L., Rectangular bunched rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on carbon fiber for dye-sensitized solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(9), 4437-4441(2012).


Hamnett, A., Dare-Edwards, R., Wright, K. and Seddon, J., Good-enough, Photosensitization of titanium (IV) oxide with tris (2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium II chloride surface states of titanium IV oxide, J. Phys. Chem. 83 (25), 3280-3290(1979).


Hou, S., Cai, X., Fu, Y., Lv, Z., Wang, D., Wu, H., Zhang, C., Chu, Z. and Zou, D., Transparent conductive oxide-less, flexible, and highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells with commercialized carbon fiber as the counter electrode, J. Mater. Chem., 21(36), 13776-13779 (2011).


Huang, S., Sun, H., Huang, X., Zhang, Q., Li, D., Luo, Y. and Meng, Q., Carbon nanotube counter electrode for high-efficient fibrous dye-sensitized solar cells, Nanoscale. Res. Lett., 7(1), 222(2012).


Huang, X., Liu, K., Li, D., Li, Y., Luo, H., Li, W., Song, L., Chen, Q. and Meng, Application of carbon material as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells, Elecrochem. Commun., 9(4), 596-598(2007).


Imoto, K., Takahashi, T., Yamaguchi, T., Komura, J., Nakamura, K. and Murata, High performance carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells., 79(4), 459-469(2003).


Ito, S., Ha, N. L. C., Rothenberger, G.  Liska, P.,    Comte, P.,   Shaik M. Zakeeruddin,   Péchy, P., Nazeeruddin, M. K. and  Michael Grätzel, High-efficiency flexible dye-sensitized solar cells with Ti-metal substrate for nanocrystalline- TiO2 photoanode, Chem. Commun., (38), 4004-4006(2006).

Jin Z. X. , Xu G. Q. and Goh S. H., A preferentially ordered accumulation of bromine on multi-wall carbon nanotubes, Carbon, 38 (8), 1135-1143(2000).


Kay, A. and Gratzel, M., Low cost photovolataic modules based on dye sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and carbon powder, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells., 44 (1), 99-117(1996).


Khongchareon, N., Choopan, S., Hongsith, N., Gardchareon, A., Phadungdhitidhada, S. and Wongrtanaaphaisan, D., Influence of carbon nanotubes in gel electrolyte on photovoltaic performance of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells, Electro. Chemical. Acta.  1., (106), 195-200(2013).


Kim, S. S., Park, K. W., Yum, J. H. and Sung, Y. E., Pt-NiO nanophase electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 90(3), 283-293(2006).


Kongkanand, A., Dominguez, R. M. and Kamat, P. V., single wall carbon nanotube scaffolds for photoelectrochemical solar cells. Capture and transport of photogenerated electrons, Nano Letters, 7 (3), 676-680(2007).


Kyaw, A., Tantang, H., Taowu, Ke, L., Wei, J.,   Demir, H., Zhang, Q. and Sun, X. W., Dye sensitized solar cell with a pair of carbon- based electrodes, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phy., 45, 165-168 (2012).

Lan, Z., Wu, J., Lin, J. and Huang, M., Morphology controllable fabricatin of Pt counter electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, J.Mater. Chem., 22(9), 3948-3954(2012).

Lee, I.,  Lee, S., Kim, H. and Youngkyookim, Polymer solar cells with polymer/carbon nanotube composite Hole-collecting buffer layers, Open Physical chemistry Journal, 4(1), 1-3(2010).

Lee, J. M., Park, J. S., Lee, S. H., Kim, H., Yoo, S. and Kim, S. O., Selective Electron or Hole –transport enhancement in Bulk –Heterojunction organic solar cells with N or B –doped carbon nanotubes, Adv. Mater., 23 (5), 629-633(2011).


Lee, K- M., Hu, C. W., Chen, H. W. and Ho, K- C., Incorporating carbon nanotube in a low-temperature fabrication process for dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells., 92 (12), 1628-1633(2008).


Lee, T. Y., Alegaonkar, P. S. and Yoo, J. B., Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell using TiO2 coated carbon nanotubes, Thin solid films, 515 (12), 5131-5135(2007).


Li, K., Luo, Y., Yu, Z., Deng, M., Li, D. and Meng, Q., Low temperature fabrication of efficient porous carbon counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells, Electrochem. Commun., 11(7), 1346-1349(2009).


Liu, B. Q., Zhao, X.P., and Luo, W, The synergistic effect of two photosynthetic pigments in dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO2 solar cells, Dyes and Pigments, 76(2), 327-331(2008).


Luque, A. and  Hegedus, S., Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering. The Netherlands: Elsevier (2003).


Maurin, G., Bousquet, C., Henn, F., Bemier, P., Almairac, R. and Simon, B., Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into multiwall carbon nanotubes, Chem. Phys. Lett., 312(1), 14-18(1999).


Miao, Q., Wu, M., Guo, W. and Ma, T., Studies of high-efficient and low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells, Front. optoelectron., 4(1), 103-107(2011).

Miller, A. J., Hatton, R. A. and Silva, R. P., Interpenetrating multiwall carbon nanotubes electrodes for organic solar cells, Appl. Phys. Lett., 89 (13), 133117-133119(2006).


Miyasaka, T. and Kijitori, Y., Low-temperature fabrication of dye-sensitized plastic electrodes by electrophoretic preparation of mesoporous TiO2 layers, J. Electrochem. Soc., 151(11), 1767–1773(2004).


Murakami, T. N., and Gratzel, M., Counter electrode for DSSC: Application of functional materials as catalysts, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 362(3), 572-580(2008).


Nam, J. G., Park, Y. J., Kim, B. S. and Lee, J. S, Enhancement of the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell by utilizing carbon nanotube counter electrode, Scripta. Mater., 62(3), 148-150(2010).


Narayan, M. R., Review: Dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural photosensitizers, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 16(1), 208-215(2012)

Nazeeruddin, M. K., Baranoff, E., Gratzel, M., Dye –sensitized solar cells: a brief overview, Solar energy, 85(6), 1172-1178(2011).


Nazeeruddin, M. K., Kay, A., Rodicio, I., Baker, H. R., Muller, E., Liska, P., Vlachopoulos, N. and Gratzel, M., Conversion of light to electricity by cis –X2 bis (2,2'-bipyridyl -4,4'- dicarboxylate) ruithenium (II) charge-transfer sensitizers (X=cl-, Br-, I-, CN-, and SCN-) on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide electrodes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115, 6382-6390(1993).


Oskam, G., Bergeron, B. N. V., Meyer, G. J., and Searson, P. C., Pseudo halogens for Dye-Sensitized TiO2 photochemical cells, J. Phys. Chem. B., 105 (29), 6867-6873(2001).


Pimanpang, S., Maiaugree, W., Jarenboon, W., Maensiri, S. and Amornkitbamrung, V., Influences of magnesium particles incorporated on electrophoretically multiwall carbon nanotube film on dye-sensitized solar cell performance,  Synth. Met., 159(19-20), 1996-2000(2009).


Polo, A. S. and Iha, N. Y. M., Blue sensitizers for solar cells: Natural dyes from calafate and Jaboticaba, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells., 90(13), 1936-1944(2006).


Ramar, A., Soundapppan, T., Chen, S. M., Rajkumar, M. and Saraswathi Ramiah, Incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in ZnO for dye sensitized solar cells, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 7 (12), 11734-11744(2012).

Ramasamy, E., Lee, W. J., Lee, D. Y. and Song, J. S., Spray coated multi-wall carbon nanotube counter electrode for tri-iodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells, Electrochem. Commun. 10(6), 1087-1089(2008).


Ramuz, M. P., Vosgueritchian, M., Wei, P., Wang, C., Gao, Y., Wu, Y., Chen, Y. and Bao, Z., Evaluation of solution processable carbon based electrodes for all carbon solar cells, ACS Nano, 6(11), 10384-10395(2012).


Regan, B. O. and Gratzel, M. A. Low-cost, high efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films, Nature, 353, 737-740 (1991).doi:10.1038/353737a0

Sandquist, C. and McHale, J. L., Improved efficiency of betanin- based dye-sensitized solar cells, J. Photochem. Photobiol., A, Chemistry, 221(1), 90-97(2011).


Shi, C., Dai, S., Wang, K., et al., Influence of various cations on redox behavior of I-/I3- and comparison between KI complex with 18- crown -6 and 1,2 –dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide in dye-sensitized solar cells, Electrochim. Acta., 50(13), 2597-2602(2005).


Shi, C., Dai, S., Wang, K., Pan, X., Kong, F., and Hu, L., The adsorption of 4-tert-butyl pyridine on the nanocrystalline TiO2 and Raman spectra of dye-sensitized solar cells in situ, Vib. Spec., 39(1), 99-105(2005).


Shiichou, C., Yang, R. Y., Weng, M. H. and Huang, C. I., The applicability of SWCNT on the counter electrode for the dye-sensitized solar cell, Adv. Powder Tech., 20(4), 310-317(2009).


Smestad, G., Bignozzi, C. and Argazzi, R., Testing of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells I: Experimental photocurrent output and conversion, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells., 32(3), 259-272(1994).


Sumanasekara G. U., Allen J. L., Fang, S. L., Loper, A. L., Rao, A. M., and Eklund, P. C., Electrochemical oxidation of single wall carbon nanotube bundles in sulfuric acid, J. Phys. Chem. B, 103(21), 4292-4297(1999).


Suzuki, S., Bower, C. and Zhou, O., In-situ TEM and EELS studies of alkali-metal intercalation with single-walled carbon nanotubes, Chem. Phys. Lett., 285(3), 230-234(1998).


Swathi Sharma, Ranjan, P., Das, S., Gupta, S., Bhati, R.,  Majumadar, A.,  Synthesis of carbon nanotube using olive oil and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell, Int. J. Renew. Energy Res., 2(2), 112-127 (2012).

Tachibana, Y., Moser, J. E., Gratzel, M., Klug, D. R., and Durrant, J. R., Subpicosecond interfacial charge separation in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide films, J. Phys. Chem., 100(51), 20056-20062(1996).


Tantang, H., Kyaw, A. K. K., Zhao, Y., Mary, B., Park, C., Tok, A. L. Y. and Hu, Z., Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube-based bilayer thinfilm as transparent counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, Chem- Asian. J., 7(3), 541-545(2012).


Ting, C. C. and Chao, W. S., Efficiency improvement of the DSSCs by building the carbon black as bridge in photoelectrode, Appl. Energy., 87(8), 2500-2505(2010).


Tune, D. D. and Gibson, G, T., Single walled carbon nanotube array as working electrode for dye solar cells, IEEE, 171-173(2010).

Uddin, M. J., Dickens, T., Yan, J., Chirayath, R., Olawale, D. O. and Okoli, O. I., Solid state dye-sensitized photovoltaic micro-wires with carbon nanotubes yarns as counter electrode: synthesis and characterization, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells., 108, 65-78 (2013).


Wang, Y. C., Huang, K. C., Dong, R. X., Liu, C. T., Wang, C. C., Ho, K. C. and Lin, J. J., Polymer-dispersed MWCNT gel electrolytes for high performance of dye-sensitized solar cells, J. Mater. Chem., 22(7), 6982-6989(2012).


Wang, Z. S., Sayama, K. and Sugihara, H., Efficient Eosin Y Dye-sensitized solar cell containing Br-/Br3- electrolyte, J. Phys. Chem., 109(47), 22449-22455(2005b).


Wei, J., Jia, Y., Shu, Q., Gu, Z., Wang, Zhuang, D., Zhang, G., Wang, Z., Luo, J., Cao, A. and Wu, D., Double-walled carbon nanotube solar cells, Nano Lett., 7(8), 2317-2321(2007).


Wongcharee, K., Meeyoo, V. and Chavadej, S., Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from rosella and blue pea flowers, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 91(7), 566-571(2007).


Wu, J., Lan, Z., Hao, S., Li, P., Lin, J., Huang, M., Fang, L. and Huang, Y., Progress on the electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells, Pure Appl. Chem., 80 (11), 2241-2258(2008).


Yakobson, B. I. and Avouris, P., Mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, Carbon nanotubes, 80, 287-292(2001).

Yanagida, S., Senadeera, G. K. R., Nakamura, K., Kitamura, T. and Wada, Y., Polythiophene-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, J. Photochem. Photobiol., 166(1-3), 75-80(2004).


Yang, C. C., Zhang, H. Q. and Zheng, Y. R., DSSC with a novel Pt counter electrodes using pulsed electroplating techniques, Curr. Appl. Phys., 11(1), 147-153(2011).


Yang, Z., Chen, T, He, R., Guan, G., Li, H., Qiu, L., Peng, H., Aligned carbon nanotube sheets for the electrodes of organic solar cells, Adv. Mater., 23(45), 5436-5439(2011).


Yella, A, Lee, H. W., Tsao, H. N., Yi, C., Chandiran, A. K., Nazeeruddin, M. K., Diau, E. W., Yeh, C. Y., Zakeeruddin, S. M. and Gratzel, M., Porphyrin-Sensitized solar cells with cobalt (II/III)-based redox electrolyte exceed 12 % efficiency, Science Magazine, 334(6056), 629-634(2011).

Yu, Z., Vlachopoulos, N., Gorlov, M., and Kloo, L., Liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells, Dalton Trans., (40), 10289-10303(2011).

Zhang, D., Li, X., Chen, S., Sun, Z., Yin, X. J. and Huang, S., Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with various carbon nanotube counter electrodes, Microchim. Acta., 174(1-2), 73-79(2011).


Zhou, O., Fleming, R. M., Murphy, D. W., Chen, C. H., Haddon, R. G.,  Ramirez, A. P., et al., Defects in carbon nanostructures, Science, 263(5154), 1744-1747(1994).