Welcome to JENT its Thursday 18th of January 2018

Journal of Environmental Nanotechnology

(A Quarterly Peer-reviewed and Refereed International Journal)
ISSN(Print):2279-07 48; ISSN(Online):2319-5541

The Effect of Activating Agents on the Activated Carbon Prepared from Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (Wood Apple) Shell


Activated carbon samples are characterized by their high adsorption capacities. Although the highly active surface properties of the activated carbon are after attributed to the chemical functional groups, surface morphology plays a significant role in determining the surface availability. Micropores, mesopores and macropores distribution in activated carbon samples are closing related to their preparation methods. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of activation methods on the characterization of activated carbon produced from Feronia limonia shell. The resulting samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption measurements at 77 K to obtain surface area and pore size distributions. The morphology of the resulting sample was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the electronic structure was investigated by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy techniques. Results obtained indicate that the activated carbon prepared using Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (wood apple) shell by ZnCl2 carbonization process followed by activation at 800° C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded activated carbon with the highest surface area and more developed micro, meso and macroporosity.

Article Type: Orginal Research Article

Corresponding Author: S. Karthikeyan 1  

Email: skmush@rediffmail.com

This article has not yet been cited.

S. Karthikeyan 1*,  P. Sivakumar 2.  

1. Department of Chemistry, Chikkanna Government Arts College, Tirupur, Tamilnadu, India.

2. Department of Chemistry, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India

J.Environ. Nanotechnol., Volume 1, No. 1 (2012) pp. 05-12
ISSN: 2279-0748 eISSN: 2319-5541
Download Citation


Abe, I., Tatsumoto, H., Ikuta, N. and Kawafune, I., Preparation of activated carbon from pisthachio nut shell. Chem. Exp., 5 (3), 177–180 (1990).

Bosinco, S., Roussy, J., Guibal, E. and Lecloirec, P., Interaction Mechanisms between Hexavalent Chromium and Corn Cob, Environ. Technol., 17,  55-62 (1996).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593331708616360

Chen, B., Hui, C.W. and McKay, G., Film – pore Diffusion Modeling for Sorption of Metal ions from Aqueous Effluents onto peat. Water Res., 35 (14), 3345-3356 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00049-5

Debyshire, F., Jagtoyan, Andrews, R., Rao, A., Martin Gullon, I. and Grulke, E., Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2 1(2001).

Gregg, S.J. and Sing, K.S.W., Adsorption, Surface Porosity, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, London (1982).

Hassler, J.W., Purification with Activated Carbon, 2nd Edn., Chemical Publishing Co. Inc., New York, 179 (1974).

Hayashi, J., Kazehaya, A., Muroyama, K. and Watkinson, A. P., Carbon, 32, 1873-1878 (2000).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00027-0

Hu, Z. and Srinivasan, M.P., Proceedings in: 5th  International Activated Carbon Conference,Pittsburgh Plaza, Pittsburgh., USA, (1997).

Hu, Z., Srinivasan, M.P. and Yaming, N., Novel Activation Process for Preparing Highly microporous and Mesoporous Activated Carbons. Carbon, 39 ,877-886 (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00198-6

Hu, Z. and Vansant, E.F.A., New Composite Adsorbent produce by Chemical Activation of Elutrilithe with Zinc Chloride, J. Colloid Int. Sci., 176, 422-431 (1995).http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1995.9949

Kendall, D., Applied Infrared Spectroscopy, Reinhold Publishing Corp. Chapman & Hall Ltd, London, 560 (1996).

Khan, A., Singh, H. and Bhatia, A.K., Activated carbon from walnut shells. Res. Ind., 30 (1), 13–16 (1985).

Khattri, S.D. and Singh, M.K., Adsorption of Basic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by Natural Adsorbents, Indian. J. Chem. Technol., 6, 112-116 (1999).

Kirubakaran, C.J., Krishnaiah, K. and Seshadri, S.K., Experimental study of the production of activated carbon from coconut shells in a fluidised bed reactor. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 27     (2), 2411–2416 (1991).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00059a008

Maniatis, K. and Nurmala, M., Activated carbon production from biomass. Biomass Energy Ind. Environ., 274, 1304–1308 (1992).

Manuel Fernando Peyeira, R., Samanta, F., Soares, Jose, J., Orfau, M., Jose, L. and Figueiredo, Adsorption of Dyes on Activated Carbons: Influence of Surface Chemical Groups, Carbon, 41, 811-821 (2003).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(02)00406-2

Sivakumar, N., Color Removal from Textile Processing Effluent using Industrial Biopolymeric Solid Waste Derived Adsorbents, Ph.D., Thesis, Bharathiar University, India (2002).

Xiongzun, Z., Famnao, Z., Lie, L. and Qingrong, L., A New technique to produce activated carbon (from saw dust of any humidity) by zinc chloride method. J. Nanjing Inst. Forest.,1, 19–30 (1986).

Zawadski, J., IR Spectroscopy Investigatious of Acidic Character of Carbonaceous Film, Carbon, 19, 19-25(1981).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0008-6223(81)90100-7